The results do not apply directly in Wales, Scotland or Northern Ireland.
In all of these countries the healthcare system under the NHS is broadly
similar to the system in England, and midwifery education and
midwife-led care are fairly similar. In terms of these and other
characteristics known to affect maternity services, on the whole
Wales is most like England. However, in Scotland the geography
is different with large parts of the country being rural and remote,
including areas of high land and islands separated from the main
land, which pose particular communication and transport challenges.
In Northern Ireland the culture of the maternity services is more
medicalised with fewer midwifery units and less experience of home birth.